A metal model of the Ostankino tower on a stone base. Ostankino is a television and radio tower in Ostankino district, in Moscow, Russia designed by a Russian engineer and designer Nikolai Nikitin who represented the monumentalist movement in Soviet Union. Ostankino with its height 540 metres is the tallest free standing structure in Europe and the first free standing structure that exceeded the height of 500 metres. The construction began in 1963 and was completed in 1967 for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution, it also surpassed the Empire State Building in US which then was the tallest free standing structure in the world. The key ingredient for reaching the desired height and thin structure was the prestressed concrete.